Author Credentials

Agnes Mulundu Mbewe
MNS (Acute Care Nursing), BN, RN

Adelaide Nursing School, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, The University of Adelaide

Dr Zaneta Smith
PhD, MClin Prac with Distinction, MTerEd Mgmt, PGDip (Clin Prac-Periop), BN, RN, FACORN

The University of Adelaide


Aims: To synthesise and evaluate the effectiveness of virtual reality (VR) interventions compared to standard care to reduce pre-operative anxiety in adult surgical patients during the pre-operative period.

Design: Systematic review of effectiveness and meta-analysis.

Data sources: MEDLINE, EMBASE, JBI EBP, PUBMED, CINAHL, SCOPUS, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library, EMCARE, World Health Organisation, WEB OF SCIENCE, Grey Literature, National Institute of Health & Care Excellence were searched with limits between 2010 to 2022.

Review methods: The review followed the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) methodology for systematic reviews of effectiveness and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis (PRISMA 2020) guidelines. Two independent reviewers conducted the selection, critical analysis, data extraction and critical appraisal using the JBI Critical Appraisal Checklist for Randomised Controlled Trials. Data was synthesised through meta-analysis using random effect model in RevMan 5 software (version 5.4.1) and narrative syntheses.

Results:This analysis included data from five studies with a combined total of 466 adults. The meta-analysis of the included studies suggested positive outcomes (SMD = -0.18 [-0.37, 0.00]) of VR interventions compared to standard care in managing anxiety in pre-operative adult patients. The pooled results showed statistically significant difference (p-value

Conclusion: The primary evidence on the effectiveness of VR interventions to manage pre-operative anxiety, though limited, is increasing and substantiates the need for more rigorous research to optimise its application in adults.

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.